Effects of seasonal changes and environmental factors on bioindicator bacteria levels in Çardak Lagoon, Çanakkale Strait, Turkey

İbrahim Ender Künili, A. Suat Ateş

Paper category: Original research paper
Corresponding author: İbrahim Ender Künili (enderkunili@yahoo.com)
DOI: 10.2478/oandhs-2021-0025
Received: 20/01/2021
Accepted: 26/03/2021
Full text: here

Citation: Künili,İ. & Suat Ateş,A.(2021).Effects of seasonal changes and environmental factors on bioindicator bacteria levels in Çardak Lagoon, Çanakkale Strait, Turkey. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies,50(3) 299-309. https://doi.org/10.2478/oandhs-2021-0025


Çardak Lagoon is one of the most important marine environments in the Turkish Strait system, which is home to a variety of organisms. The lagoon is currently under stress and faces the risk of heavy pollution. For this reason, the present state of the lagoon was monitored in this study. During sampling from October 2018 to June 2019, the levels of indicator microorganisms fluctuated up to 4.04 Log10 cfu 100 ml−1 and their presence was found to be higher in warmer seasons. The highest positive correlations were observed for total coliform levels with salinity and chemical oxygen demand, whereas the highest negative correlations were found between the levels of fecal coliforms, pH and temperature. E. coli and fecal streptococci showed moderate correlations with the environmental factors in all seasons. Although nitrite and nitrate (NO2 + NO3) were not significantly correlated with bacteria levels, they were present at elevated levels. Çardak Lagoon showed the lowest microbiological and chemical quality in the summer season, and this situation continued into the autumn season as a possible result of increased wastewater discharge and human activities. The lagoon should therefore be monitored regularly and precautions should be taken to prevent severe ecological deterioration.


Lagoons are important coastal areas as they provide refuge, breeding and feeding habitats for many marine species. Çardak Lagoon, one of the most important lagoons in the Turkish Strait system, has experienced chemical and bacterial pollution in recent years. In this study, bacterial contamination levels were determined seasonally and the results were related and correlated with environmental factors. It was concluded that the pollution in the lagoon originates mainly from potential human-induced discharges in and/or around the lagoon. Moreover, the pollution varied seasonally depending on changes in environmental parameters, which showed significant correlations. The results show that bacterial pollution in the lagoon is at elevated levels compared with the national and international threshold values, and if it continues at this rate, more severe deterioration of the lagoon is inevitable. For this reason, it is important that lagoons facing pollution problems, such as Çardak Lagoon, are closely monitored to protect their ecosystems and surrounding environment.


This study was conducted as part of the COST Action Project supported by TUBITAK Project #117Y510.


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