Life histories of anadromous salmon males reveal a trade-off between primary and secondary sexual traits

Tomislav Vladić, Torbjörn Järvi, Erik Petersson

Paper category: Original research paper
Corresponding author: Tomislav Vladić (
DOI: 10.2478/ohs-2019-0025
Received: 06/11/2018
Accepted: 12/03/2019
Full text: here

Citation (APA style): Vladić, T., Järvi, T. & Petersson, E. (2019). Life histories of anadromous salmon males reveal a trade-off between primary and secondary sexual traits. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 48(3), pp. 279-289. Retrieved 3 Oct. 2019, from doi:10.2478/ohs-2019-0025


The life-history trade-off between investment in somatic growth and gonadal tissue is caused by individual energy limitations and results in individuals that adopt specific tactics to achieve reproduction. Allocation in primary and secondary sexual traits in Atlantic salmon males was studied by assessing life history traits (smolt size, sea age, growth rate) based on back-calculation of scales, ejaculate energy content (sperm ATP content, mass and density) and the size of secondary sexual traits. We found that males investing less in secondary sexual traits produce ejaculates with a higher energy content. Differences were found in the investment into primary and secondary sexual traits between fish that spent one year in the sea before returning to their spawning grounds (grilse) and multi-sea-winter adults, suggesting that different energy allocation patterns in reproductive effort reflect alternative developmental pathways. These findings are consistent with the pattern where multi-sea-winter male ejaculate investment relies principally on the resource acquisition in the ocean, whereas grilse ejaculate investment relies chiefly on the resource allocation of available surplus energy, thus representing alternative male reproductive tactics.


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