Recruitment patterns of the solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra Savigny, 1816 on artificial substrates submerged in the central Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Abdul Mohsin A. Al-Sofyani, Sathianeson Satheesh

Paper category: Original research paper
Corresponding author: Sathianeson Satheesh (
DOI: 10.2478/ohs-2019-0023
Received: 05/11/2018
Accepted: 21/01/2019
Full text: here

Citation (APA style): Mohsin A. Al-Sofyani, A. & Satheesh, S. (2019). Recruitment patterns of the solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra Savigny, 1816 on artificial substrates submerged in the central Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 48(3), pp. 262-269. Retrieved 3 Oct. 2019, from doi:10.2478/ohs-2019-0023


The solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra is commonly found on hard substrates along the Jeddah coastal waters of the central Red Sea. In this study, the recruitment pattern of P. nigra on artificial substrates was assessed in relation to their type, surface color and orientation. The results showed a higher recruitment rate of the ascidian species on concrete and dark panels. The abundance of the ascidian on test panels varied between the four seasons. The orientation (vertical or horizontal) of the panels did not show any major difference in the recruitment. Significant effects of light intensityon the recruitment of P. nigra were observed on test panels, with higher abundance on panels submerged in the shade. In conclusion, this study clearly indicates the importance of the type and color of substrates in the recruitment of ascidians on artificial materials.


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